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Notes. Chapter Vi

"Jewish Magic and Superstition", by Joshua Trachtenberg, [1939],

Chapter Vi

The Spirits Of Good

The Bible speaks of great "hosts" of angels; see, "e.g.", Josh. 5:14, 15, I Kgs. 22: 19, Job 25:3: "Is there any number of His armies?" etc. The Talmudic literature accepts unquestioningly this doctrine of an infinitude of angelic beings, which remained the prevailing view throughout the Middle Ages. Cf. Schwab, Vocabulaire, 6; "JE", I, 583 f.; "Rokea", 362.

\"S. as." 305: ; "S. as. B". 1160: ; Eleazar of Worms wrote (Kammelhar, 53):. Cf. also Gd. I, 162, n. 2, 169, and "ochmat HaNefesh", 18a. This notion was not unknown in contemporaneous German thought, as witness this statement from a sermon by Berthold of Regensburg (ed. Kling, p. 16), quoted by Gd. (loc. cit.): "Er [Gott] hat zu ieglichem knigriche einen engel gesetzet, der des knigriches da htet, und danne zu ieglichem

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hertzogetme and zu ieglichem lande, daz ein lant mit snderm namen ist, and danne zu ieglichem bistme einen, and zu ieglicher stat einen, die in den landen and in den bistmen sint, and danne zu ieglichem dorfe einen, and zu ieglichem kloster einen, and zu ieglichem hse einen, and zu ieglichem menschen einen snderlichen, ez si jng oder alt, getauft oder ungetauft, einem ieglichen christen menschen snderlichen einen hter and einen engel gegeben, and halt ieglichem heiden and ketzer and iden and slafenen [Slav] and tatanen [Tartar]; ez sin iene oder diese, die nach menschen gebildet sind, der hat iegliches sinen engel, der sin htet." Medieval Christianity shared with Judaism a very rich angelology, and put it to similar magical use in the so-called "Notory Art," which was not the most prevalent form of Christian magic. The specific concept of the "deputy," however, though intimated in the above quotation, seems to have made no inroads into Christian mysticism.

Cf. "Raziel", 19b.

\"iyuni", 15e; cf. "Suk." 29a; "Cant. R." 8:14; "Mek. Beshalla", Shirah, II: even in the time of the Messiah God will not punish any nation until he shall have first punished its heavenly prince.--"iyuni", 10c: ; "S. as. B" 1157:. The terms "star" ("mazal"), "angel" ("malach"), "prince" ("sar") and "deputy" ("memuneh") are often used synonymously in this connection.

\"S. as." 1082, 133, 524, 1158, 826, 1461; \"Joseph Ome", 351.

\"S. as." 1453; "Rokea" 201; "Raziel" 4a ff.

The thirteenth-century mystics were especially addicted to this doctrine; cf. "ochmat HaNefesh" 16d, 18a, 29d; "S. as. B" 1162; "iyuni" 5c; Gd. I, 207, n. 2. William of Auvergne (thirteenth century) offered a similar explanation of such phenomena, with the important difference, however, that he attributed them not to angels but to the demons whom the sorcerer had invoked; cf. Thorndike, Ii, 350.

For a detailed exposition of rabbinic angelology see L. Blau, "JE", I, 583 ff.; G. F. Moore, "Intermediaries in Jewish Theology, Harvard Theological Review", Xv (1922), 41-85. Kaufmann Kohler's article ("JE", I, 589 ff.) is especially valuable for its discussion of the early non-rabbinic sources. The Talmudic "princes" to whom particular provinces were assigned appear often in the mystical literature of the first Christian centuries, as well as in the writings of the Church Fathers (see Thorndike, I, 343, 453 f.) and were accepted by the medieval Church and Synagogue. See also "EJ", VI, 626 ff.; Gd. I, 162 f.

\"J. Ber." 13a: "If trouble befall a man, let him not cry to Michael or Gabriel, but let him cry to Me and I will answer him at once." See, however, "Echah R.", II, 6, and "JE", Vi, 203, for a Midrashic account of conjuration of angels.

Where the older Midrash ("Gen. R." 10:6) reads: "There is not a blade of grass which does not have its star in heaven," the younger ("Mid. Tehillim", ed. Buber, Vilna 1891, 104, p. 440) has, "Every single thing has its appointed angel ("memuneh") over it." These quotations, with the substitution of a newer concept for an old, give us the clew to the confusion and combination of the two which I have noted. I don't think Ginzberg ("Legends", V, 110, 159) is justified in reading the sense of the second into the first. The connotation of the one is astrological, of the other, theosophical. A closer rendition, in theosophical terms, of the Platonic concept is to be found in this Geonic statement: "There are those who maintain that for each species of living creature [that He was about to create] God first created a corresponding species of angel in heaven and asked them, 'How would you like it if I should create a replica of you on earth?' And according to their opinion and their wish did He go about the work of

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creation." B. M. Lewin, "Otzar haGaonim", V (Jerusalem 1932), Part II, p. 22 (cf. "ul". 60a).

Kammelhar, 53; Eleazar even agreed with the philosophers that the angels are "Intelligences," ibid. (cf. "More Nebukim", Ii, 6).

Cf. More Neb. Ii, 42; \"Namanides" on Gen. 18, beg.; "Kuzari", Iii, 11; Moses Taku, "Oar Nemad" III, 61; Gd. I, 207, n. s; Kammelhar 52; and Gd. I, 169, citing a ms. work of Eleazar of Worms.

Cf. "Shab." 12b and "Sotah" 33a; "Ma. Vit." 87, P. 54-5; \"HaPardes", 23a, 58a-b; "Yore Deah" 335:5; "Shelah" II, 146a; "S. as. B" 32, 1134. \"HaPardes" 22d accounted for the Aramaic invitation to participate in the Passover meal, which serves as an introduction to the Seder service, on the ground that the demons, like the angels, speak Hebrew (cf. "ag." 16a), and an invitation in that language would overwhelm the proceedings with a host of these unwelcome guests.

\"Tos. Shab." 12b. See also "Tos. Ber." 3a, which takes issue specifically with "Ma Vit.", loc. cit.; "Teshubot HaGeonim", ed. Harkavy, 373, 188 ff.

Eleazar of Worms divided these two types of service between two classes of angels, the angels (or messengers) proper, and the servants of God: Kammelhar, 53. The medieval "Kabbalah" distinguished ten classes of angels, but aside from one or two bare references to such a classification (cf. "iyuni", 49a; H. Gross, "Gallia Judaica", p. 411) they do not enter into North European speculations. Cf. Ginzberg, "Legends", V, 23, n. 64, and 70, n. 22; "JE", I, 591.

See Kammelhar, loc. cit.; "Teshubot HaGeonim", ed. Harkavy, 373, p. 189; "Paanea Raza", 23a and Ginzberg, "Legends", V, 237, n. 154.

Moses Taku, "Oar Nemad" Iii,.

Cf. I. Elbogen, "Der jdische Gottesdienst", Leipzig 1913, p. 385; "Lebush" on "Ora ayim" 584:1; "Kol Bo" 67; "Yeven Meulah", 20. See "JE", I, 592, for parallels in the apocalyptic and rabbinic literature.

\"Rokea" 362; cf. "ag." 13b and "Tos." ad loc. See Moore, "Harvard Theological Review", Xv (1922), 62 ff., for discussion of Metatron.

20. \"Aramaic Incantation Texts", 112.

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