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Iii, 23

"Vedic Hymns, Part Ii (sbe46)\", by Hermann Oldenberg [1897],

p. 287

\"N"D"Ala Iii, Hymn 23.

\"T"Aka Iii, Adhyya 1, Varga 23.

Produced by attrition, well preserved in his abode, the young sage, the leader of worship, Agni ever young in the forests 1 that grow old--"G"tavedas, has here assumed immortality 2.

The two Bharatas 1, Deva"s"ravas and Devavta, in the midst of wealth have produced by attrition Agni the skilful (god). Agni, look forth with mighty wealth, and then be 2 for us a guide of food day by day.

3 1.
The ten fingers have brought him to the birth, the ancient, beloved (Agni), well born in his mothers 2. Praise, O Deva"s"ravas, the Agni of Devavta who 3 should be the lord of people.

4. I
have laid 1 thee 2 down in the best (place) of the earth 3, in the place of I"l" 3, in the auspiciousness of days. O Agni, as the god who has belonged to Manus 4, shine with wealth on the D"ri"shadvat, on the pay, on the Sarasvat.

5 = Iii, 1, 23.


The "Ri"shis are Deva"s"ravas Bhrata and Devavta Bhrata (see verse 2); the metre is Trish"t"ubh (verse 5 Satob"ri"hat).--No verse occurs in the other Sa"m"hits.

Verse 1.

Note 1. The 'forests' are the fuel. 'Does the poet mean: Never consumed in the consumed wood or forests,

p. 288

i. e. the fire burns and is kept alive while the wood is burnt up?' M. M.

Note 2. Or, 'he has received the drink of immortality'--which may refer to the ghee offered in the fire.

Verse 2.

Note 1. On the tribe of the Bharatas having their seats, as verse 4 seems to show, on the borders of the Sarasvat and of the D"ri"shadvat, see H. O., Buddha (first edition), 413 seq.

Note 2. This is an imperative in -tt, signifying, as Delbrck has shown (Syntaktische Forschungen, III, 2 seq.; Altindische Syntax, 363), an injunction to be carried out after something else has been done or has happened. Agni is first to look about (v pa"s"ya), and shall then become (bhavatt) a guide of food, i. e. he shall lead plenty of food to the worshipper's house.--Prof. Max Mller translates ishm net, 'a guide to food.'

Verse 3.

Note 1. Should this Satob"ri"hat, standing alone among Trish"t"ubh verses, be considered as forming a distich together with verse 2? Comp. H. O., Die Hymnen des Rigveda, vol. i, p. 102, note 7.

Note 2. The woods.

Note 3. Agni, not Devavta, is referred to.

Verse 4.

Note 1. Or, 'he has laid.' The form may be first or third person, present or perfect.

Note 2. Agni is addressed.

Note 3. The best place of the earth, the place of I"l" (i. e. of the nourishment coming from the cow, of the ghee offered into Agni) is the sacrificial ground or more especially the spot on which the sacrificial fire is established.

Note 4. Or 'to men.' The Padap"th"a has mnushe, but mnusha"h" seems more probable.
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