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Next. 151 200

"Charity", by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1766], tr. by John Whitehead [1914]



When, therefore, a man is a use, or a good of use, he is also a charity.

And when that is the case, the man is said to be a charity in form; indeed he is an image of it. All things in that man are of charity; for when the man himself is, in general, breathing forth use, he is doing so in every particular as well. His life and his soul become a love of use, or an affection of use.

And then the man is looking inwardly to the Lord, and outwardly to his work.

6. A
man is born to the end that he may become a charity; but he cannot become a charity unless he constantly does the goods of use to the neighbour from affection and its delight. In the following article it will be stated how a man is to do the good of use constantly to the neighbour, and this from affection and its delight.

He who places charity in good deeds alone cannot do this constantly.

And unless constant uses are done, a break in the continuity is brought about; and during this interval he may turn aside to all loves and the lustings therefrom, and thus not only be discontinuing his charity, but also get drawn away from uses. In this way the charity perishes, by reason of its opposites; and he serves two masters. 156-1


It is possible, indeed, for a man to do the good of use from an affection of glory, honour, and gain, and from the delights of these; but in that case he is not a charity, but a lusting; thus he is not a form of heaven, but a form of hell. Even in hell every one is compelled to do good work; but not from an affection of it; he is compelled to do it.

Vii Every Man Who Looks To The Lord And Shuns Evils As Sins Becomes A Form Of Charity, Provided That He Honestly, Justly, And Faithfully Carries Out The Work Of His Occupation Or Employment.
This follows as consequent upon the preceding law, that man is born in order to become a charity, and he cannot become a charity unless he constantly does the good of use from affection and delight. When, therefore, a man honestly, justly, and faithfully, carries out the work of his occupation or employment from affection and its delight, he is continually in the good of use, not only towards the community or state, but also towards particular sections ther and towards private individuals. But he cannot do this unless he looks to the Lord and shuns evils as sins; for, as shown above, the "first" of charity is to look to the Lord and shun evils as sins, and the "second" of charity is to do goods [no. 40]. Moreover, the goods he does are the goods of use he is doing every day; and when he is not doing them, he has it in mind to do them. There is an interior affection abiding inwardly, and desiring it. It is owing to this that, all the time, from morning to evening, from year to year, from his earliest age to the end of his life, he is in the good of use. He cannot otherwise become a form of charity, that is, a receptacle of it.

Something shall now be said concerning charity in the case of the priest, the governor, and the officials under them; the judge, the commander of an army, and the officers under him; the common soldier; the business man, the workman, the farmer, the ship's captain and the sailor, and servants.

Charity in the case of the Priest. If he looks to the Lord and shuns evils as sins, and honestly, justly, and faithfully does the work of the ministry he is charged with, he is doing a good of use continually, and becomes a charity in form. But he does this good of use or the work of the ministry honestly, justly, and faithfully, when it is the salvation of souls that affects him; and in proportion as this affects him, truths affect him, because by them he is to lead souls to heaven; and he is leading souls to heaven by means of truths when he leads them to the Lord. His love is then diligently to teach truths from the Word, because when he teaches them from the Word he is teaching them from the Lord. For the Lord not only is the Word (John i. 1, 2, 14), but He is also the Way, the Truth, and the Life (John xiv. 6), and He is the Door. He, therefore, who enters into the sheepfold through the Lord as the door, is a good shepherd; but he who does not enter into the sheepfold through the Lord as the door, is a bad shepherd, who is called a thief and a robber (John X. 1-9).

Charity in the case of Governors. By governors are meant those holding the highest positions in kingdoms, commonwealths, provinces, cities, societies, over which they have jurisdiction in civil affairs. Each one of them in his own position, if he looks to the Lord and shuns evils as sins, and if he honestly, justly, and faith fully carries out the work of his exalted function, is continually doing a good of use to the community and to the individuals in it, and becomes a charity in form. And this takes place when the good of the subjects or citizens affects him; and when this affects him, it moves him to enact, together with those who are wise and God-fearing, laws of use, to see that they are kept, and to be first in living subject to them; also, to appoint over the groups of people under him officials, who are intelligent and at the same time of good will, through whom, under his supervision, judgment and justice may prevail, and the general good always be promoted. He will regard himself as the highest in rank of those serving others, and not as the head, for the head directs all things of its body from love and wisdom in itself; and Love and Wisdom in itself is the only Lord, by whom he, too, as a servant, will be directed. 44

Charity in the case of Officials under them. By officials under governors are meant those who are appointed by them over groups of the people to fulfil various necessary and useful functions. Each one of them, if he looks to the Lord and shuns evils as sins, and if he honestly, justly, and faithfully carries out the work of his office, becomes a charity in form, because he is doing goods of use continually, while at work, and also when not at work; for then an affection for doing them becomes established in his mind [animus], and the affection for doing the goods of use is charity in its life. What affects him is the use, and not the honour, except for the sake of the use. Under every official there is, in accordance with the scope of his jurisdiction, a sort of lesser general good subordinate to the greater and greatest general good, which is that of the kingdom or republic. When an official who is a charity is doing his own work honestly, justly, and faithfully, he is taking thought for the lesser general good which is that of his contribution, and in this way he is taking thought for the greater, and the greatest, general good. Moreover, it is the same with the official as with the governor already treated of, the only difference being that which exists between what is greater and what is less, what is wide and what is narrow, what is extended to uses in a general way, and what is extended to them in a particular way. In addition, the one kind of extension is dependent on the other, as a retinue of servants is dependent.

Charity in the case of Judges. If they look to the Lord and shun evils as sins, and if they deliver judgments of justice, they become charities in form, because they are doing goods of use both to the community and to the individuals in it, thus to the neighbour. And they are doing them continually while executing judgment, and also when not doing so, because they think from what is just, they speak from what is just, and they act from what is just; for what is just is of their affection; and, in a spiritual sense, is the neighbour. He executes judgment on all from what judgement is just, and at the same time impartially; for these cannot be separated. Indeed he is then executing judgment in accordance with the law, for every law has these two principles for its end; and so, when a cunning- man tries to pervert the meaning of the law, he dismisses the suit. In coming to a judgment he considers it to be a sin to have regard to friendship, or a bribe, or relationship, or authority, or any advantage other than that every one who lives according to the laws shall be protected and a sin if, when pronouncing a just judgment the justice is not in the first place [with him], but in the second. The judgments of a just judge are all judgments of charity, even when he inflicts a fine or a penalty on the guilty evil; for in this way he is amending them, and guarding against their doing harm to other guiltless people, who are the neighbour; for he is like a father who, if he loves his children, corrects them when they do wrong.

Charity in the case of the Commander of an Army. By the commander of an army is meant its highest officer, whether he is the king or the archduke, or a commander appointed by either of them, who is holding the command-in-chief. If he looks to the Lord and shuns evils as sins, and if he acts honestly, justly, and faithfully in the affairs, of his generalship and command, he is doing the goods of use that are goods of charity. And because he is constantly meditating upon them, applying himself to them, and carrying them into effect, he becomes a charity. If he is the king or the archduke, he does not love war, but peace, and continues to love it during war. He only goes to war for the protection of his country, and thus he is not an aggressor but a defender; afterwards, indeed, when war has been commenced, he also is an aggressor, so long as aggression is defense. In battle, unless by birth he is of another nature, he is brave and active; after battle, mild and merciful. In battle he would fain be a lion; but after battle, a lamb. Inwardly in himself he does not exult in the slaughter of the enemy and the honour of victory, but in the deliverance of his country and his own people from hostile invasion and the resulting ruin and destruction. He acts prudently, he faithfully looks after his army as the father of a family looks after his children and servants, he loves each one of them according as he does his work honestly and actively; besides several like things. Cunning is not cunning with him, but prudence.

Charity in the case of Officers under the Commander of an Army. They can each one become a charity, that is, an angel of heaven, if they look to the Lord and shun evils as sins, and carry out the duties of their command honestly, justly, and faithfully. For in this way they, too, are constantly doing the goods of use that are of charity; for their minds are in them, and when the mind is constantly in goods of use, it becomes a form of charity. For each one, his country is the neighbour; in a spiritual idea he is the protection of it, and its security from invasion and destruction. He is not triumphant with false claims of what he has not merited; nor is he triumphant over what he has merited: he thinks the latter is his duty, and this makes him contented in spirit and not boastful. In war he loves the soldiers under him, according to their activity, honesty, and obedience; he looks after them, and wishes well to them as to himself, they being victims in the glory he has from his use. For officers can have a glory from their use and a glory from their rank. Those who are charities have a glory from their use, but not from their rank. The other things in his case are similar to those in the case of the commander of an army, already treated of, differing only in accordance with the extent of his command. I have seen such officers in a higher heaven; and I have seen officers who were not such, in hell.

Charity in the case of the Common Soldier. If he looks to the Lord and shuns evils as sins, and does his duty honestly, justly, and faithfully, he also becomes a charity; there being in this respect no distinction of persons. For he is averse to unjust plunderings; he detests unjust bloodshed. In battle it is another thing: then he is not averse to it, for then he does not think of it, but of the enemy as an enemy, who desires his blood. His fury dies away when he hears the sound of the drum calling him to cease from the slaughter. After victory he looks upon the prisoners as the neighbour according to the quality of their good. Before battle he raises his mind [animus] to the Lord, and commends his life into His hand; and after having done this, he brings his mind [animus] down again from its elevation into the body, and becomes brave; while in his mind [animus] above his bravery the thought of the Lord continues to abide, though he is not then aware of it. And then if he dies, he dies in the Lord; if he lives, he lives in the Lord.

Charity in the case of the Business Man. If he looks to the Lord and shuns evils as sins, and carries on his business honestly, justly, and faithfully, he becomes a charity. He acts with prudence of his own, as it were, though trusting all the while in Divine Providence; consequently he is not depressed in misfortunes, nor is he filled with pride in successes. He thinks of the morrow, and yet he does not think of it. He thinks of what will have to be done on the morrow, and how it should be done; yet he does not think of the morrow, because he attributes the future to Divine Providence and not to his own prudence: even his own prudence he attributes to Divine Providence. He loves transacting business as the principal part of his occupation, and loves money as the instrument of it; and he does not make the money the principal thing, and the business the instrumental, as the majority of the Jews do. Thus he loves the work, which is in itself a good of use, and does not love the means more than the work. He does not indeed make this distinction, but they are nevertheless so distinguished when he looks to the Lord and shuns evils as sins. For he shuns avarice, which is an evil, and the root of more evils. He loves the general good while loving his own good; for in this the general good lies, as the root of a tree hiding itself underground, out of which, nevertheless, the tree grows, and blossoms and bears fruit. Not that he gives the general good more, out of his own, than is due; but because the public good is also his fellow-citizen's good having its existence from the latter, and he loves his fellow-citizens from the charity of which he is a form. No one can know the hidden things of charity in himself, because he does not see them: but the Lord sees them.

Charity in the case of Workmen. By workmen are meant labourers and artisans of various kinds. These, if they look to the Lord and shun evils as sins, and if they do their work honestly, justly, and faithfully, become forms of charity, each one according as he loves his work, and applies himself to it. For the things they have to do are goods of use, of service to the neighbour for various necessities and utilities, such as food, clothing, habitation, protection, preservation, enjoyment, and several other things; they are also of advantage to the commonwealth. Every workman, according as he puts his mind to his work and labour, from the love of it, is, in respect of affection and thought about it, in it; and to the extent that he is in it, he is kept from thinking and loving vanities, and so may be led by the Lord to the thinking and loving of goods, and also to the thinking and loving of the means to good, which are truths. The case is otherwise with a man who is not intent upon any work. Every workman who looks to the Lord and shuns evils as sins, shuns idleness, because it is the devil's couch; he shuns dishonesty and fraud; he shuns luxury and intemperance. He is industrious, honest, sober, content with his lot, and does his work for the neighbour as for himself, because in doing it he is loving himself and him in equal degree.

Charity in the case of Farmers. Farmers, that is, husbandmen and vinedressers, if they look to the Lord and shun evils as sins, and do their work honestly, justly, and faithfully, become charities in respect of their spirits, and after death, when they become spirits, they are in a form of charity; and that form is a human form, in which latter form all are after death. Such farmers rise early in the morning, arrange their work, devote themselves wholeheartedly to their tasks, are unwearied at work, and cheerful as a result of it. After work they are thrifty, sober, and alert. At home with their families they act according to what is just; outside with others, according to what is honest. They regard the civil laws of justice, such as those of the Decalogue, as Divine, and obey them. They love their fields and vineyards, because of their crops; and they love the crops because they are blessings, and give thanks to the Lord for them, and so they are continually looking to the Lord.

Charity in the case of Ship-captains. Ship-captains, either entrusted with ships and the merchandise therein, or owning them, also become charities if they look to the Lord and shun evils as sins, and do their work honestly, justly, and faithfully. Their work is a greater good of use than many others, because by means of it there is effected a communication and as it were a conjunction of the whole globe with its parts, and of the parts with the whole. And this important work becomes a good of use, which is a good of charity in them, when they act prudently to the best of their knowledge, when, keeping watchful and sober, they carry out their duties assiduously, so that the voyage may be successful, do not rashly expose themselves to dangers, nor lose hope when they encounter unforeseen dangers, and afterwards when they have reached safety, they render praise and thanks to the Lord. They are just and honest in their dealings with the sailors, faithful towards the owners of the ship, and just in their dealings with the foreigners at whose port their ship calls. They have nothing to do with pirates; they are content with their pay, and with any gains over and above it that are lawful. Because seafaring men who are charities look to the Lord and shun evils as sins, and do their work honestly, justly, and faithfully, they are more devout in their morning and evening prayers and hymns than those whose life is spent on the land, for they trust in Divine Providence more than these do. I counsel seafarers henceforth to pray to the Lord, because He is the God of heaven and earth and sea... 170-1


Charity in the case of Sailors. Sailors also become charities if they look to the Lord and shun evils as sins, while doing their work honestly, justly, and faithfully. For when they shun evils as sins they are shunning the devil, the devil being evil itself; and in that case they are accepted by the Lord; and the goods they then do they are doing from the Lord. And in no other way do they do goods continually than in the work they are called upon to do, which is seamanship. That work is a good work, because it is a good of use; and having love towards the neighbour, or charity, is nothing else than doing a good of use. Moreover, when they shun the devil and are accepted by the Lord, they do not commit the evils that are listed in the Decalogue; that is, they do not kill, they do not commit adultery, they do not steal, they do not bear false witness; for no one who loves the neighbour does these things. For anyone who hates the neighbour so much that he would like to kill him, is not loving him; anyone wanting to commit adultery with someone else's wife, is not loving the neighbour; anyone wanting to steal and plunder his goods, is not loving the neighbour; anyone who bears false witness against him, is not loving the neighbour; and so on. These fire the evils that they who look to the Lord specially shun. Then, also, they are not afraid of death, because if they die, they die in the Lord, and come into heaven; and in heaven they all love one another like brothers or like companions, and render each other mutual services. I exhort sailors also, as I have just exhorted the ship-captain, to approach the Lord and pray to Him; for none other is God of heaven, earth, and sea.

Charity in the case of Servants. Servants, just the same as masters, become charities, that is, angels, when they look to the Lord and shun evils as sins, and carry out a servant's tasks honestly, justly, and faithfully. Their tasks, which are the goods of charity proper to them and never-ceasing, are, attending on their masters, wishing well to them, not speaking ill of them, carrying on in their absence as honestly as in their presence, and not scorning to serve: for everyone, in whatever position of responsibility he is, is obliged to serve; even a king ought to serve the Lord. And in so far as anyone serves faithfully, he is loved and led by the Lord. And in the measure that anyone looks to the Lord and shuns evils as sins, he serves freely and not under compulsion.

Viii Signs Of Charity Are All The Things That Are Of Worship.
All the things that are of charity have reference to looking to the Lord and shunning evils as sins, and doing the goods of use that are of anyone's office. All the things of worship however are external things, and are external things either of the body or of the mind. The external things of the body are done by actions and words; and the external things of the mind are those done in will and thought that cohere with the external things of the body.

External things of the body, that are of worship, are: 1. Regularly attending places of worship; 2. Listening to sermons; 3. Singing devoutly, and partaking of the saying prayers kneeling; 4. Sacrament of the Supper. Then at home: 1. Saying prayers morning and evening, also at dinners and suppers; 2. Talking with other people about charity and faith, and about God, heaven, eternal life, and salvation; 3. Also, in the case of priests, preaching, as well as teaching privately; 4. And for everyone, instructing children and servants in such matters; 5. Reading the Word, and books of instruction and piety.

External things of the mind, that are of worship, are: 1. Thinking and meditating about God, heaven, eternal life, and salvation; 2. Reflecting upon one's thoughts and intentions, to see whether they are evil or good, and reflecting that the evil ones are from the devil, and the good ones from God; 3. Being averse, in one's mind, from talk about ungodly, obscene, and filthy things; 4. In addition to the thoughts there are also affections that reach a man's sight and feeling.

These are termed external because they cohere with external things of the body, and make one with them.

That such things are external things of worship, and that external things of worship are signs of charity will be seen in the following order: (1) Charity itself is in the Internal man, and its sign is in the External. (2) When charity is in the Internal man, and makes it, then all the things of worship that are done in the External are its signs. (3) Worship in the External man, proceeding from the charity in the Internal, appears before angels as a standard-bearer holding a banner; whereas worship in the External man, not proceeding from charity in the Internal, appears before angels as an actor holding a firebrand.

Charity itself is in the Internal man, and its sign is in the External. That there is an Internal and an External man, is well known; and that the Internal man is said to be the spirit and the External the flesh, is also well known. For it is said, and by some people recognized, that the spirit and the flesh are at war. The spirit that fights with the flesh is the Internal man, which is charity.

The Internal man as it is cannot manifest itself clearly to a man except by means of the External. It manifests itself when it is at war with the External; especially does it do so when a man examines himself, and sees his evils, and upon recognizing them confesses them, and when he considers repenting, and then resists his evils, and sets about leading a new life.

If a man does not do these things, his Internal man is evil; if he does them, his Internal man is good. For the Lord operates by means of the Internal man upon the External; and, because there is evil residing in the External, a conflict takes place. For, to the External man, which is called the flesh, spirits from hell are admitted, who are called the devil, and the Lord with the man fights against this devil, and, if the man also fights as from himself, conquers; and in so far as the devil is overcome, room is made for goods from the Internal man to enter. So, step by step, the man becomes new, and is regenerated.

Whatever the Internal man brings about and presents to sight and feeling in the External, is termed a sign. If there is charity in the Internal, it brings about the man's reflecting upon the evils in himself, and he then in fact recognizes and knows them, and so on. If he does not do this, his External is not a sign of charity; and even if his External is in worship and piety, this is not a sign of charity, being external charity without internal charity, which is not charity.

By a sign is meant an indication and testification that a thing exists; for it marks and signifies, and so indicates and testifies.

There is no Internal without its sign and its indication. If there is charity in the Internal man or the spirit, and it does not fight with the External man and its flesh, the charity perishes. It is like a fountain of pure water: if there is no outlet, it stagnates; and then either its flow fails, or the water becomes foul through stagnation. Several confirmations of these things from the Word. [The next two pages of the original MS. are missing.]

[ix Benefactions Of Charity Are All The Goods Which A Man Who Is A Charity Does, In Freedom, Outside The Scope Of His Occupation.]

No one is saved by means of these benefactions, but by means of the charity out of which they are done, and which therefore is in these benefactions. These benefactions are outside the man, and every one is saved according to the quality of the good or charity in him. Very many after death, who in the world had thought about their own salvation, seeing then that they are alive, and hearing that heaven and hell do exist, make a great parade of having done good works, given to the poor, helped the needy, and made contributions to pious uses. But it is said to them: "From what motive [origo] did you do those things? Did you shun evils as sins? Did you give them any consideration?" Some of them reply that they had faith. But it is said: "If you did not give any consideration to evils as sins in yourselves, how could you have faith? Faith and evil do not go together." So inquiry is made into what their life had been in their occupation, whether they had done the uses of their occupation for the sake of renown, position, and gain, as the principal goods, thus for the sake of themselves, or whether they had done them for the sake of the neighbour. They reply that they have made no such distinction. To this the reply is made: "If you had looked to God and shunned evils as sins, then these two things would be distinct of themselves, because the Lord distinguishes them"; and that in so far as they had not done this, they had acted from evil and not from good. Everyone's very affection is communicated in the spiritual world, and its nature displayed; and such as he is in respect of his affection, such are all things proceeding from him. In this way he is led to the society where his affection is.

If those who place charity only in the good actions or good deeds they do, have not charity in themselves, they are conjoining themselves interiorly with the infernal and exteriorly with the heavenly. But everyone is deprived of the exterior, and is left to his interior.

X Obligations Of Charity Are All Those Things It Behoves A Man To Do In Addition To Those Set Forth Above.
Obligations of charity are the payment of taxes for various necessities and uses in the commonwealth, these taxes being imposed on the subjects and citizens: also payment of duties to the Customs: expenses and outlays for various household necessities and uses, as regards oneself, one's wife and children, men-servants, maid-servants, and workmen: and, again, any expenses and outlays of theirs; also any engagements entered into which thereby become obligations. Besides these there are also civil obligations, namely those of subordination, obedience, honour, and intercourse, which are to be termed obligations because it behoves a man to fulfil them. But to enumerate them all in detail would fill a whole page. The various obligations that the laws of the kingdom impose are called obligations of charity, because charity does them as a matter of obligation, and not out of good pleasure; and, because charity regards them as uses, it does them honestly and willingly. With those who are in charity, the honesty and willingness of charity are inwardly in every obligation, though both the honesty and the willingness are in accordance with the uses to which they look forward in their obligations, and also in accordance with what they know of the administering of the uses.

With those, however, who are not in charity, those same obligations appear similar externally, but are not similar internally. For with them there is neither honesty nor willingness; and therefore, if they are not afraid of the laws, or if they can upon any pretext evade them, they defraud in their payments. With them, not only the things set forth above, but even the laws of justice, are obligations; for these they keep from fear of being punished and of losing renown, and on this account they are doing so because they are obliged to, and not from a love of what is just, thus not from love of the neighbour.

Xi There Are Diversions Of Charity, Which Are Various Enjoyments And Pleasures Of The Bodily Senses, Useful For Recreating The Mind
[animus]. 189-1 Such diversions are social intercourse, with its discussions about various matters, public, private, and domestic; also walks with their views, delightful on account of the various beauties and splendours of palaces and houses, of trees and flowers in gardens, woods, and fields, also of people, birds, and flocks; plays, moreover, of various kinds, presenting moral virtues, and turns of fortune from which something of Divine Providence shines out. These and similar things are for the sense of sight. Then, too, harmonies of music and of singing, that affect the mind [animus] according to their correspondence with affections; and besides these, seemly jests, that expand the mind [animus]. These are for the sense of hearing. Furthermore, banquets, feasts, and meals, with the cheerfulness attending them; and in addition, indoor games played with dice, balls, or cards; dancing, too, at weddings and festive gatherings. These and similar things are diversions useful for recreating minds [animus]. And in addition to these there are various kinds of manual work exercising the body and diverting the mind [animus] from its regular activities; then there is the reading of books containing opinions on history and philosophy which give delight, and the news in newspapers also.


With everyone who is in some position or employment these are diversions. They may therefore be termed diversions of such positions or employments; but in point of fact they are diversions of the affections from which each one carries on his employment. There is an affection in every employment, and it bends the mind [animus], [and] keeps the mind [mens] intent upon working or applying itself, and this latter mind, if not relaxed, becomes dulled, and its desire loses its keenness; just like salt when it loses its saltiness and is consequently without any savour or stimulus. It Is also like a bent bow, which, unless it is unbent, loses the force it derives from its elasticity. It is precisely the same if the mind [mens] is kept a long time in the same ideas without any change; as is the case with the sight when only a single object or a single colour is looked at continuously; for the sight goes if anything black is looked at continuously, or anything red continuously, or anything white continuously; as, for instance, if snow is looked at continuously, the sight goes; but it is enlivened by several colours, whether seen one after another or all at the same time. Every form gives delight on account of the diverse things in it; for instance a garland of different coloured roses beautifully arranged. That is why a rainbow is more pleasing than the light itself.

When the mind [mens] has been continuously intent on any work, it longs for rest; and when resting it descends into the body, and there seeks its delights corresponding to the mind's [mens] activities. It makes its choice in accordance with its interior state in the body. The interiors of the body derive their pleasurable things chiefly from sensations of sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch, which pleasurable things are indeed derived from things without, but they nevertheless insinuate themselves into the individual parts of the body, which are termed members and viscera. From this and no other source are their enjoyments and pleasures. Each of the fibres, and each tissue of the fibres, each capillary vessel, and thence general vessels, and thus everything in the whole body draws its own delights, which the man then feels not individually but as a whole: they become as it were one general thing. As is the mind of the head in them, so are the delights, pure or impure, spiritual or natural, heavenly or infernal; for inwardly in any of the body's sensations there is his will's love with its affections, and the understanding brings about a perception of the delights of these affections. For the will's love with its affections makes the life of each one, and from it the understanding's perception makes sensation; this is the origin of all delights and pleasures. For the body is a connected chain-like work, and a single form. Sensation communicates itself like a force applied to the separate links of a chain, and like a form made up of continuous chains.

But as the ministries, functions, offices, and works of all keep their minds [mens] on the stretch, and it is these that are to be relaxed, revived, and recreated by the diversions, it can be seen that the diversions are various in accordance with the interior affection in them; and that they are one thing if an affection of charity is in them, another thing if an affection for position only is in them, another if an affection for gain only is in them, another if done only for the sake of sustenance and the necessaries for living, another if only for the sake of a reputation, to become celebrated, another if only for what they earn, that they may increase their wealth, or that they may live in comfort; and so on.

In those who have an affection of charity, all the diversions set forth above serve it for recreation, even plays and games, as well as harmonies of music and singing, and all the beautiful things in fields and gardens, and social intercourse in general. The affection of use abides inwardly in them, and, while thus resting, is gradually renewed. A desire for one's function breaks off or ends those things. For the Lord inflows from heaven into them and effects the renovation; and He also gives an interior sense of gratification in them, of which those who are not in an affection of charity know nothing. He breathes into them something as it were fragrant or sweet only perceptible to oneself. It is said, fragrant, by which is meant spiritual pleasantness; and it is said, sweet, by which is meant spiritual delight. Pleasantness is said of wisdom, and of the understanding's perception therefrom; and delight [jucundum] is said of love, and the will's affection there from. With those who are not in an affection of charity, these things are not present, because their spiritual mind is closed; and in so far as they recede from charity, their spiritual mind, in respect of the Voluntary, is as if all stuffed up with glue.

In those who only have an affection for position, those, that is, who do the work of their function only for the sake of renown, so that they may be praised and promoted, these diversions are similar externally. They work hard, they take pains over their work, they do uses in abundance; not, however from the love of use, but from the love of self, thus not from the love of the neighbour, but from the love of glory. They can even feel delight in the work of their function; but it is an infernal delight. This, in their view, may counterfeit heavenly delight, since both delights are alike externally. But their delight is full of undelightful things, for there is no rest of mind [animus] or peace for them except when they are thinking about renown and position, or are being honoured and worshipped. When not thinking about those things, they throw themselves into sensuous pleasures, drunken bouts, luxuries, whoredoms, enmities, and acts of revenge, and slanders against their neighbours if they do not make libations in their honour. But gradually, if not raised into higher positions, they loathe their offices, and give themselves up to idleness, and become slothful; and when they have left this world they become demons.

In those who only have an affection for gain, these diversions are indeed diversions, but carnal ones, inspired within only by the delight of being wealthy. Such persons are diligent, prudent, industrious, especially when they are merchants, and workmen. If they are officials, they take pains over the duties of their office, and sell the uses they do; if judges, they sell justice; if priests, they sell salvation. To them, gain is the neighbour. By virtue of their office they love gain, and they love the gain derived from their office. Those who are in a high office may sell their country, and also betray the army and citizens to its enemies. It is clear from all this what the quality of their love is in the diversions set forth above; these are full of rapine. Moreover, in so far as they are not afraid of the civil laws or public penalties, or afraid of losing the renown that brings them the desired gain, they plunder and steal. Externally they are honest, but internally they are dishonest. The uses they do in their offices and employments are enjoyable and pleasant to them as dung is to swine, or as mice are to cats. They look upon other people as a tiger or a wolf looks upon lambs and sheep, which they devour if they can. As for the good of use, they do not know that it is anything. There is an infernal delight and pleasantness in their diversions. They are like asses, not seeing any pleasures in meadows and fields, except as something to feed upon, so long as there is wheat or barley in the ears. But these last things are said of the avaricious.

In those, however, who perform their employments solely for the sake of sustenance and the necessaries for living; also in those who perform them solely for the sake of a reputation, to become celebrated; and in those who perform them solely for what they earn, to the end that they may grow rich, or that they may live in comfort, the diversions set forth above are the only uses. They are corporeal and sensual men. Their spirits are unclean, being lustings and appetites. They do the duties of their employment for the sake of the diversions. They are beast-men - dead; and duties are a burden to them. They look for substitutes to do the work they ought to be doing; while they keep the reputation and the earnings. When not engaged in the diversions enumerated above, they are idlers and sluggards; they lie abed thinking of nothing else but how to find companions with whom to gossip, eat, and drink. They are a public burden. All such people after death are shut up in workhouses, where they are under an administrant judge, who daily appoints them the tasks they have to do; and if they do not do them they are given neither food, nor clothing, nor bed; and this goes on until they are driven to do something useful. The hells abound with such workhouses, about which [there may be] some thing at the end of this work. These workhouses stink; every grateful odour being from the life of spiritual love, or from the life of the love of use.

The conjunction of charity and faith is dealt with in The Doctrine Of The New Jerusalem Concerning Faith; also in the Explanation Of The Apocalypse; as well as in Angelic Wisdom Concerning The Divine Providence; and in Angelic Wisdom Concerning The Divine Love And Wisdom.

In them everything has reference to these two: 1. There cannot exist a grain of spiritual faith part from charity, since charity is the life, soul, and essence of faith; 2. Such as the charity is, such is the faith; and the faith that precedes charity is a faith of cognitions, which is historical faith, in itself a knowing. [Here ends the MS. of the first draft of the work. The following pages contain: 1. A revised list of headings for a new draft. 2. Chapters I and II of the new draft. 3. Brief drafts of chapters XII and IV (on one page of the MS.). 4. The title of chapter III. See the Editorial Note.]

The sections in their series. I. THE "FIRST" Of Charity is To Look To The Lord And Shun Evils As Sins. Ii. The \"SECOND" Of Charity Is To Do Good To The Neighbour. Iii. In A Natural Sense, The Neighbour Who Is To Be Loved Is A Fellow Citizen, Also A Society, Small Or Large, Also One'S Country, Also The Human Race. Iv. The Neighbour Is To Be Loved In Accordance With His Spiritual Good, And His Moral, Civil, And Natural Good Therefrom; Consequently It Is Good That, In A Spiritual Sense, Is The Neighbour To Be Loved. V. Everyone Loves The Neighbour From The Good Of Charity In Himself; Consequently The Quality Of Anyone'S Charity Is Such As The Charity He Himself Is. Vi. A Man Is Born To The End That He May Become A Charity; But He Cannot Become A Charity Unless He Constantly Wills And Does The Good Of Charity From Affection And Its Delight. 199-1 Vii. Every Man, Who Looks To The Lord, And Shuns Evils As Sins, Becomes A Charity, If He Honestly, Justly, And Faithfully Carries Out The Work Of His Occupation Or Employment. Viii. Signs Of Charity Are All The Things That Are Of Worship. Ix. Benefactions Of Charity Are All The Goods That A Man Who Is A Charity Does, In Freedom, Outside The Scope Of His Occupation. X. Obligations Of Charity Are All Those Things It Behoves A Man To Do In Addition To Those Set Forth Above. I. There Are Diversions Of Charity, Which Are Various Enjoyments And Pleasures Of The Bodily Senses Useful For Recreating The Mind. Xii. Where There Is No Truth Of Faith, The Church Does Not Exist, And Where There Is No Good Of Charity, Religion Does Not Exist. 199-2 I The \"FIRST" Of Charity Is To Look To The Lord And Shun Evils As Sins. It is well known that charity, or love towards the neighbour, is doing good to others. But how one should do good, and to whom, so that the charity may be charity, will be described in what follows. Everyone knows that no one can do good that is in itself good, except from Him who is Good Itself, or Good in Himself, that is, except from God. Moreover, it is possible for everyone to know that, so long as a man is in evil, and thus, through that evil, in company with the devil, he can do no other good than impure good, which outwardly has the appearance of being good, but inwardly is evil; which good is either pharisaical or done for reward. It will be necessary, therefore, to say first what a man should be, so that the good proceeding from him may be in itself good, thus the good of charity. 199-3


This, however, will be done in the following order: (1) No one can have charity except from the Lord. (2) No one can have charity from the Lord unless he shuns evils as sins. (3) A man ought to shun evils as sins, as from himself, while doing so nevertheless from the Lord. (4) In so far as anyone does not shun evils as sins, he remains in them. (5) In so far as anyone does not recognize and know what sins are, he sees no otherwise than that he is without sin. (6) In so far as anyone recognizes and knows what sins are, he can see them in himself, confess them before the Lord, and repent. (7) Good before repentance is not good, nor, before repentance, is charity charity. (8) Consequently, the "first" of charity is to look to the Lord and shun evils as sins, which is done by repentance.


Matt. Vi. 24; Luke xvi.13.

In the MS. the end of this line and another line are partly torn away and partly indecipherable. The Scripture references given are probably "Matt. xxviii. 18; John iii. 35, xvii. 2; Matt. xi. 27," as in H.d. 291.

Swedenborg uses two terms for "mind," mens and animus. Generally, the former is used for the higher level in which the will and understanding are rationally active, while the latter applies to the lower level in which desires and ideas in connection with the body and the world are active; but mens is occasionally used with a wider significance. Cf. n. 204.

In the left-hand margin of the MS. opposite sections vi.-x.: "Enumerate the sins of which a man is not in the least conscious if he does not search himself carefully, but which he either confirms with himself or does not reckon as sins, and which accordingly he does continually on account of the delights they yield from what is hereditary; from the Decalogue and from reason; up to 50 or a hundred of them can be enumerated, the civil as well as the spiritual ones, etc."

From an examination of the MS. it appears that Swedenborg, after writing out the contents of the draft that follows, altered the sections II, III, and IV to read as follows: "II. The 'second' of charity is to do uses to the neighbour. "III. In a natural sense, the neighbour to whom uses are to be done is a fellow citizen, also a society, small or large, also one's country, also the human race; and there are uses that are spiritual, and there are civil ones. "IV. Uses are to be done to the neighbour in accordance with his spiritual good, and his moral, civil, and natural good therefrom." He also crossed off section XII, and inserted the following over it: "Charity and faith make one."

Swedenborg wrote the following note in the left-hand margin of the MS. opposite this paragraph: "N.B. - From Paul respecting love towards the neighbour: If anyone asks which is first, to shun them as evils, or to love the neighbour."
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